When the Busia government was inaugurated, it immediately issued the expulsion order which caused the deportation of many immigrants in a manner never before attempted. The study demonstrates how the interplay of factors, such as the government ’s desire to reduce the rate of unemployment and remittances from Ghana, combat crime, guarantee the security of the country, compel immigrants to comply with the immigration law s of Ghana, control the growth of the country’s population, ensure cultural homogeneity , clear the streets of immigrant destitutes and beggars, continue the policies of the NLC, and xenophobia on the part of some Ghanaians, at least to some extent, influenced the government’s decision to issue the expulsion order. 
The people most affected by this Expulsion Order were the Nigerians. The numbers of Nigerians and in particular, Yoruba’s ethnic group members had drastically increased in the preceding years due to successes chalked by earlier Yoruba merchants who’ve been trading in pre-colonial Gold Coast.
The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a critical high-level information on socio-cultural this misguided immigration management policy and how to hopefully remedy the seeds of distrust that it sowed amongst fellow Africans.
Causative factors and events
Cocoa: The introduction of cocoa in the late nineteenth century resulted in unprecedented migration of farmers around Ghana (Hill, 1963). Such migrations led to socio-economic change. According to Addo (1968) migrants influenced socio-economic change by making their skills and Technological expertise available where they were most needed, by bringing new sense of values and new modes of economic behaviour into established enterprises, by introducing new skills into the economic life of the receiving areas, and sometimes by opening up the possibility of profitable investment in the areas where they lived.
He suggested in the case of farmers in Wassa-Amenfi district that, they commanded control over property especially of large farms of cash crops and other foodstuff in the area. Other migrants from the Brong-Ahafo, Ashanti, Volta, as well as Gas, Akwapims and Fantis in the Sefwi area either owned farm lands bought from the Sefwi chiefs and head of families or worked as share croppers (Adu, 2005).
An example of early tension between Nigerians and local communities:
It should be observed however that agitation for deportation of “aliens” or “strangers”, as the foreign migrants were referred to by Ghanaian natives, started around the mid-20th century. In 1932, during the cocoa hold-up crisis, the Nigerian cocoa farmers in Akyem Abuakwa opposed the local cocoa hold-up led by the king of the town against the European firms 10 . This instigated a far-reaching resolution of the town at a meeting of Okyeman in 1935. Then, the traditional council urge d the colonial government to ensure that “troublemakers” (referring to the migrants) were kept out of Akyem Abuakwa. The resolution reads as follows:
Okyeman consider that it is now time that people from Nigeria and other places should be made amenable to the customary law s of the various states in which they reside and that any act of insubordination on the part of any such strangers should, with the sanction of Government, be punished by As a follow-up to the above resolution, local business people in the town formed the National Crusade for the Protection of Ghanaian Enterprise which opposed the foreign entrepreneurs.
Labor force in mining sector: Sutton (1983) corroborates Peil’s assertion and argues that, with very little from the north of Ghana and virtually none from the south, much of the labour force in Ghana’s mines in the early twentieth century were from neighbouring West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria (See also Beals and Menezes, 1970; Harvey and Brand, 1974).
Resource flight: In the Ghanaian case, the expulsion ‘had a mild ameliorative effect on the temper of Ghanaians’ and a debatable economic advantage for Ghana (Brydon, 1985). Indeed, Brydon interprets the expulsions in Ghana in adverse terms since, ‘aliens took with them capital, technology and in addition, a large part of the Ghanaian trading nexus was destroyed’ (Brydon, 1985:564). Following the Order in 1969, the economic policies pursued in the 1970s by the National Redemption Council and the Supreme Military Council (1972-1978) and the frequent changes in government as well as the non-continuity of policies (see Addo, 1981), created an economic downturn in Ghana. According to Dzorgbo (1998:207) the country’s inflation, unemployment and underemployment figures increased; and the national currency devalued. There was a general lack of confidence in the Ghanaian economy.
Educated Nigerians exempted: The process of expulsion appeared to have lent credence to Busia’s explanation because Nigerians who were employed in the Ghanaian civil service and those teaching in the various Teacher Training Colleges were exempted from deportation, except that those who had no requisite papers were asked to regularize them.